Inflammation is the underlying factor in several pathological processes. Inflammation can be caused by injury or infection, but also due to active immune system or excessive production of inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandins and interleukins leading chronic inflammation1. Chronic inflammation impairs cellular function leading several disorders such as metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease, eye disorders, and autoimmune diseases. There are several causes for chronic inflammation and the mechanisms are not fully understood, but impaired autophagy and ROS accumulation are one factor contributing to that2.
Pine bark extract from Pinus Sylvestris has shown to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects in several in vitro reports3,4,5. Beta-glucans from Chaga mushroom has also properties that decreases inflammation and modulates immune system6.
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1. Arulselvan P, Fard MT, Tan WS, Gothai S, Fakurazi S, Norhaizan ME, Kumar SS. Role of Antioxidants and Natural Products in Inflammation. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016
2. Matsuzawa-Ishimoto Y, Hwang S, Cadwell K. Autophagy and Inflammation. Annu Rev Immunol. 2018 Apr 26;36:73-101. doi: 10.1146/annurev-immunol-042617-053253. Epub 2017 Nov 16. PMID: 29144836.
3. He Q, Luo Y, Shi J, Tang X, Wei A. Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) bark proanthocyanidins affords prevention of peroxynitrite-induced l-tyrosine nitration, DNA damage and hydroxyl radical formation. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2020.
4. Vigo E, Cepeda A, Gualillo O, Perez-Fernandez R. In-vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Pinus sylvestris and Plantago lanceolata extracts: effect on inducible NOS, COX-1, COX-2 and their products in J774A.1 murine macrophages. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2005 Mar;57(3):383-91. doi: 10.1211/0022357055605. PMID: 15807995.
5. Nisca A, Ștefănescu R, Stegăruș DI, Mare AD, Farczadi L, Tanase C. Comparative Study Regarding the Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Pine (Pinus nigra and P. sylvestris) Bark Extracts. Antioxidants (Basel). 2021 Feb 22;10(2):327. doi: 10.3390/antiox10020327. PMID: 33671773; PMCID: PMC7926301. 6. Duru KC, Kovaleva EG, Danilova IG, van der Bijl P. The pharmacological potential and possible molecular mechanisms of action of Inonotus obliquus from preclinical studies. Phytother Res. 2019 Aug;33(8):1966-1980. doi: 10.1002/ptr.6384. Epub 2019 Jun 17. PMID: 31209936.